Therapeutic touch

Therapeutic touch (commonly shortened to "TT"), known by some as Non-Contact Therapeutic Touch (NCTT),[1] is an energy therapy which practitioners claim promotes healing and reduces pain and anxiety. Therapeutic TouchTM is a registered trademark in Canada for the "[s]tructured and standardized healing practice performed by practitioners trained to be sensitive to the receiver's energy field that surrounds the body;...no touching is required."[2] Practitioners of therapeutic touch state that by placing their hands on, or near, a patient, they are able to detect and manipulate the patient's energy field.[3] One highly cited study, designed by nine-year-old Emily Rosa and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that practitioners of therapeutic touch could not detect the presence or absence of a hand placed a few inches above theirs when their vision was obstructed.[4][5][6] Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst concluded in their 2008 book Trick or Treatment that "the energy field was probably nothing more than a figment in the imaginations of the healers."[7] The American Cancer Society has noted, "Available scientific evidence does not support any claims that TT can cure cancer or other d seases. Dora Kunz, a theosophy promoter and one-time president (1975Ц1987) of the Theosophical Society in America, and Dolores Krieger, Professor Emerita of Nursing Science, New York University,[9] developed therapeutic touch in the 1970s.[3][10][11][12] According to Krieger, therapeutic touch has roots in ancient healing practices,[13] such as the laying on of hands, although it has no connection with religion or with faith healing. Krieger states that, "in the final analysis, it is the healee (client) who heals himself. The healer or therapist, in this view, acts as a human energy support system until the healee's own immunological system is robust enough to take over".[14] Therapeutic touch and nursing education Owen Hammer and James Underdown from the Independent Investigations Group examined nursing standards in California, where the California Board of Registered Nursing (CBRN) can award registered nurses taking classes in therapeutic touch with continuing education units (CEUs) required for licensure renewal. Hammer and Underdown presented[when?] the Board with the scientific evidence refuting the validity of therapeutic touch as a legitimate treatment, but the Board did not change its policy.