Pressure point

A pressure point (Japanese: kyusho "vital point, tender spot";[1] Chinese: ; Telugu: ?? ?? Marma Sthanam; Malayalam: ?? marmam; Tamil: ?? varmam) in the field of martial arts refers to an area on the human body that may produce significant pain or other effects when manipulated in a specific manner. Techniques of attacks on pressure points are called Hyol Do Bup (Hangul: ?; ?) in Korean martial arts and kyusho-jutsu (Japanese: ?) in various styles of Japanese martial arts. The concept of pressure points is present in old school (17th century) Japanese martial arts and is claimed to have an even earlier history; in a 1942 article in the Shin Budo magazine, Takuma Hisa asserted the existence of a tradition attributing the first development of pressure-point attacks to Shinra Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu (1045Ц1127).[2] Hancock and Higashi (1905) published a book which pointed out a number of vital points in Japanese martial arts.[3] Exaggerated accounts of pressure-point fighting appeared in Chinese Wuxia fiction and became known by the name of Dim Mak, or "Death Touch", in western popular culture in the 1960s. While it is undisputed that there are sensitive points on the human body where even comparatively weak pressure may induce significant pain or serious in

ury, the association of kyusho with esotericist notions of qi, acupuncture, or reflexology is controversial. There are several types of pressure points - each is applied differently and each creates a different effect. "Pain points", for example, use tendons, ligaments, and muscles - the goal is to temporarily immobilize the target, or, at the very least, to distract them. Reflex points produce involuntary movements; for example, causing the hand to release its grip, the knees to buckle, the target to gag, or even for the person to be knocked unconscious.[5] Most pressure points are located on pathways on the nervous system. Some pressure points produce pain when struck, pressed, or rubbed, depending on the point itself. These points are also referred to as nerve centers. While the distraction of pain might offer sufficient advantage in a fight or escape, the body also has a pain withdrawal reflex, whereby it reacts to pain by moving away from the source.[6] Martial artists can make use of this reflex with minimal effort. The baroreceptors in the carotid artery are pressure-sensitive, supplying the brain with information to control systemic blood pressure. Pressure against this region will send signals that indicate that blood pressure is too high, leading to a lowering of blood pressure.